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A

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are some of the most common forms of injuries encountered by athletes. They occur when one of the four main ligaments in the knee, called the ACL, tears, leaving the knee less stable.
An Achilles tendon injury is an injury that happens to the largest tendon in the human body: the fibrous tissue that connects the two large muscles in the back of your calf with your heel bone. These muscles (the gastrocnemius and the soleus) create the power needed to push off with your foot or rise up on your toes.
An ankle fracture occurs when one or more than one bone that makes up the ankle joint—and possibly its ligaments—breaks at or near the joint. Every year, 184 people out of every 100,000 sustain ankle fractures. This number has been going up (and the broken ankles have been getting more serious) in the last 30 years due to the increased activity of older people that has accompanied the aging of the “baby boomers.” Emergency rooms saw 1.2 million visits in 2003 because of ankle fractures alone.
Arthritis of the hip is a condition that causes the hip joint and surrounding connective tissue to be inflamed, causing pain, swelling and limited movement of the hip. Depending on the type of hip arthritis, symptoms can range from pain and swelling in the joints to difficulty using or moving the joint in a normal way.
Arthritis of the knee is a condition that causes inflammation, pain, swelling and limited movement of the knee joint and connective tissues around the knee. Arthritis is one of more than 100 types of rheumatic diseases (diseases that affect joints and connective tissues).
Shoulder and elbow arthritis are conditions in which the joints in your shoulders and elbows are inflamed.
Basal joint arthritis is a degenerative disease that wears down the cartilage surrounding the joint. Cartilage is a protective covering that surrounds the ends of the bones and allows them to glide and move smoothly. Without the cartilage, the bone ends rub against one another, causing both friction and damage to the bones and the joint.

B

Back and neck pain are among the most common conditions people suffer from. For some, back and neck pain is an annoyance or inconvenience; for others, it can be debilitating. Back and neck pain can also be a sign of serious underlying degenerative, neuromuscular, or musculoskeletal disorders.
Bone cancer is a condition in which cells grow abnormally within the bones. There are two types of bone cancer: primary bone cancer, which starts in the bones, and secondary bone cancer, which starts in another part of the body and travels to the bones. Secondary bone cancer is the most common of the two.
Bone metastases (or bone mets) are most often found in the spine, followed by the hip bone (pelvis), upper leg bone (femur), upper arm bone (humerus), ribs and the skull. The metastatic cells look and act like the malignant (cancerous) cells where the cancer began, and get the same care.
A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of your big toe. The joint may be swollen and tender. The toe may turn toward the second toe.

C

Cervical spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the neck and usually occurs in people over 50 years of age. The narrowing can occur at the center of your spine in the canals that branch off your spine.
The multidisciplinary team of trauma and fracture experts at Northwell Health Orthopaedic Institute treats clavicle fractures as well as a broad range of conditions that affect the bones.
Cubital tunnel syndrome is a condition that involves pressure or stretching of the ulnar nerve. It is evidenced by a sensation similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The "funny" bone (ulnar nerve) crosses the inner (medial) side of the elbow and rests under a bump of bone called the medial epicondyle. The ulnar nerve begins in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers.

D

Diabetic foot is a medical term for multiple problems and complications that can happen to people with diabetes. Over time, the high blood sugar levels of diabetes damage nerves and blood vessels. The foot is a commonly affected area that illustrates many of the effects of diabetes on the body.
A dislocated shoulder is the most frequently occurring dislocation to any joint in the body. It is a painful injury that happens when a fall or accident causes the top of your upper arm bone (humerus) to pop out of your shoulder joint’s cup-shaped socket (glenoid—part of your shoulder blade), also known as a glenohumeral dislocation.
Dupuytren's contracture is a thickening of the tissue below the skin in the palm of the hand. As a result of this thickening, lumps can form beneath the skin, usually appearing at the base of the ring and pinkie fingers. These lumps eventually develop into a thick band, called a cord, which extends into the fingers, causing them to contract or pull into the palm.

E

Elbow dislocation is a condition in which the joint surfaces of the elbow are separated. Dislocations can be complete or partial, and can affect range of motion in the elbow.
Elbow fractures typically occur in the olecranon, the pointy bone at the tip of the elbow, when the bone breaks or cracks. This is a common injury that can be an isolated incident or part of a more serious condition. If the bone breaks into pieces and those pieces become displaced within the elbow, this is known as a displaced fracture. A fracture in which bone sticks out through the skin is known as an open fracture.

F

The femur, the longest and strongest bone in the human body, is quite hard to break. Unless your bone has been weakened (most commonly the result of osteoporosis, medication side effects or cancer), it takes quite a lot of force to sustain a femur fracture. Since this bone is so strong, a femur fracture is not an injury associated with most athletes, as many other injuries are. Automobile crashes, not surprisingly, are the top cause of femur fractures.
The best treatment for forearm fracture depends on a number of factors, including age, past and present health, the severity of the fracture and history with one’s medications and other treatments.

G

Growth plate fractures are very common injuries. Most fractures of the growth plate do not result in any problems; however, sometimes the fracture injures enough of the growth cartilage to prevent it from growing properly. Thus, it is important to seek care quickly for a growth plate fracture.

H

A hammer toe is a condition in which the toe buckles, causing the middle joint of the affected toe to poke out. This condition is often aggravated by tight fitting shoes that put pressure on the hammer toe. Often a corn develops at the site.
Hand and wrist fractures can make daily living difficult and cause lasting effects if not treated properly. If you think your wrist has been broken either completely or partially, it is important to seek medical attention.
When a disc is damaged, it may bulge or break open. This is called a herniated disc. It may also be called a slipped or ruptured disc.
A hip fracture is the complete or partial breakage of the upper thighbone, known as the proximal femur. The femur’s rounded end (known as its head) sits tightly but freely in the pelvis socket. The correct functioning of this “ball-and-socket” joint is essential for human locomotion.
The upper arm bone (the humerus) is the bone that runs between the elbow and the shoulder. Humerus fractures account for a remarkably small proportion of total bone fractures: only three percent.

L

A labral tear is a rip in the labrum, a piece of cartilage within your shoulder socket. It plays a large role in supporting the ball and socket joint as well as various tendons and muscles, including the rotator cuff. The labrum helps keep the shoulder stable and, as a result, labral tears can often result in shoulder dislocation.

M

Meniscus tears are fairly common knee injuries affecting the rubbery, crescent-shaped discs that provide cushioning between the knee bones. The meniscus is an important component of the knee; it offers shock absorption and contributes to the stability of the knee. A meniscus tear can keep the knee from functioning properly and greatly disrupt everyday life until it’s healed.
Multiple myeloma (plasma cell neoplasm) is a rare type of cancer that results in the uncontrolled production of one type of white blood cell (plasma cell) in the bone marrow. The cancer cells can crowd out normal blood cells, causing a reduction in red blood cells (anemia).

O

The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), is also known as "wear and tear" arthritis because it is caused by the slow and steady degeneration of the smooth cartilage that covers the ends of bones. Healthy cartilage provides joints with a normal, pain-free range of motion and function and allows them to glide smoothly in their sockets, but osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage and narrows the spaces in which the joints move.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection. It can have a sudden onset, a slow and mild onset, or may be chronic, depending on the source of the infection.
An osteopathic fracture is any fracture that occurs as a result of osteoporosis, a disease that affects the bone density of aging individuals. Osteopathic fractures occur most commonly in the hips, ribs, wrists and vertebral column (along the spine). They may have serious consequences, often leading to acute and chronic pain, further disabilities, or even early mortality in the most severe cases.

P

Pelvis fractures occur when the pelvic bone structure, which includes the coccyx, hipbone and sacrum, is disrupted. The pelvic bone forms a ring around the sacrum, a large bone shaped like a triangle that joins the upper pelvic cavity, rear pelvic cavity and base of the spine right between the hipbones.
Plantar fasciitis is the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a long ligament beneath the skin on the bottom of your foot that connects your heel bone to the base of your toes. The plantar fascia also supports the arch of your foot. The ligament is a tough, fibrous band designed to absorb the daily stresses and strains you place on your feet. When your foot experiences too much pressure, the tissues of the plantar fascia can become damaged or torn, causing plantar fasciitis.
The proximal tibia is the upper part of the shinbone that connects to the knee joint. Proximal tibia fractures are fairly common lower-leg injuries. They can result from low-energy injuries or a high-energy injury, ranging from slips and falls to major car accidents.

R

Rheumatoid arthritis of the foot and ankle is a chronic disease that causes painful inflammation of the joints. The inflammation can become so severe that it affects the appearance and function of the lower extremities. This disease usually begins in the small joints of the hands and feet, affecting the same joints on both sides of the body. More than 90 percent of people afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis will develop symptoms in the foot and ankle.
A rotator cuff tear is a partial or total split in the tendinous portion of the four muscles that connect the upper arm bone (the humerus) to the shoulder blade (the scapula). The head of the humerus is held securely but fluidly in the shoulder blade’s socket. This “ball-and-socket” joint must function correctly for you to do things that most people take for granted—such as brushing your hair and putting on your pants—without pain. Because this injury is often chronic (damage done over a significant length of time), rotator cuff tears are seen far more in people over 40.

S

Scoliosis is a spinal deformity that causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. A normal spine appears straight when viewed from behind, whereas a spine affected by scoliosis shows a lateral curvature, giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side. The spine will often be shaped like an “S” or a “C.” The curvature must be 10 degrees or greater to be considered scoliosis.
Shin splints are defined as damage to one or more areas along the shinbone that causes pain. One of the most common sports injuries, they are often associated with runners or any athlete who has repetitive strain on the muscles in this area. As the tendons around the tibia (shinbone) become inflamed, they can cause pain, usually on the inside of the shin. Shin splints account for approximately 17 percent of all running injuries.
There are two types of rotator cuff pain associated with shoulder impingement (friction between the rotator cuff and the shoulder blade): bursitis and tendonitis. The groups most at risk for bursitis and tendonitis are athletes, the middle-aged and people whose work requires them to use their arms over their heads and/or frequently lift things. Bursitis and tendonitis are not acute conditions; they involve damage done over a period of time. Without proper medical intervention and care, shoulder impingement can turn into a torn rotator cuff.
Any fracture that affects the spinal column or any of the bones within that area of the skeletal system is a spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral fracture. Additional injuries also are common with this type of fracture because of the amount of force it takes to injure the spine.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal and occurs most often in people over 50 years of age. As the canal narrows, it puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves in the canal, causing pain and other symptoms. When the spinal canal narrows in the neck area of your spine, it is called cervical spinal stenosis. In the lower part of your spine, it is known as lumbar spinal stenosis.
Spondylolisthesis is a spinal disorder in which one or more vertebrae become displaced toward the front of the body, usually in the lumbar spine (lower back), commonly following a fracture.
Spondylosis is age-related change of the bones (vertebrae) and discs of the spine. These changes are often called degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. When this condition is in the lower back, it's called lumbar spondylosis.
A sprained ankle is a very common injury; according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), approximately 25,000 people a day experience a sprained ankle. A sprained ankle happens when an ankle ligament is forced to stretch past its normal range of motion.
Stress fractures are a common overuse injury in athletes, but can also occur in non-athletes. They occur when a person has a partial fracture in one of the bones. Unlike with other broken bones, these fractures are not caused by direct impact; instead, these small breakages usually occur in weight-bearing bones such as the shinbone and foot bones and are caused by trauma accumulated over time.

T

Tennis elbow is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. As the name suggests, tennis elbow has long been associated with racquet sports and other physical activities that overuse the arms. In tennis, the condition is often caused by the force of the tennis racquet hitting balls in the backhand position. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from repeating the same motion over and over again.
Thrower’s elbow is an umbrella term used for a number of painful overuse injuries in the elbow. These injuries are most commonly seen in baseball pitchers and other athletes who perform repeated throwing motions during games and practices, but can occur in anyone who overuses their elbow joint. Overuse injuries occur and worsen gradually over time.
Trigger finger is a painful “snapping” condition that can affect your fingers or thumbs when your hand is open or closed. Known medically as stenosing tenosynovitis, trigger finger is a repetitive motion disorder that results from repeated motions of regular daily activities. This condition causes fingers or thumbs (digits) to catch or lock in a bent position. Trigger finger often stems from inflammation of the tendons that connect the muscles of the forearm to your finger and thumb bones and let you bend and extend your digits.

W

Whiplash is a soft tissue injury that can happen when your neck bends suddenly and forcibly forward and backward. The motion is very similar to when someone cracks a whip, hence the name “whiplash.”
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