An acquired arteriovenous fistula is a condition whereby there is an abnormal channel between an artery and a vein. Normally, blood flows from arteries into capillaries and then into veins...


Scoliosis is a fixed lateral curvature (deformity) of the spine. There are several causes of scoliosis, the most common of which is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...


Adult normal pressure hydrocephalus is a mild, difficult-to-diagnose type of hydrocephalus, a condition commonly referred to as “water on the brain.” The condition causes an excess of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cavities within the brain, called ventricles...


An aneurysm is a condition whereby a section of an artery wall bulges, dilates or a balloons out. Your arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body...


Oxygen is essential for brain function. When oxygen levels drop to a dangerous level, brain cells begin to die. This can lead to an anoxia/hypoxia brain injury...


Aphasia is caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language functions. It can make it difficult to read, write and say what you mean to say...


In the brain, the cerebellum is the section that controls balance. Chiari malformations occur when parts of the cerebellum protrude into the spinal canal...


Arteriosclerotic dementia (also called vascular dementia) is a loss of one’s mental function due to the destruction of brain tissue from blocked or reduced blood supply...


An arteriovenous fistula is an atypical channel between a vein and an artery. In some rare circumstances, a large fistula may cause reduced blood flow in the affected arm or leg if it is diverting enough blood...


Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the head and neck are defects of the blood vessels that happen when a fetus is growing in the uterus. Blood vessels present themselves as a tangled mass of arteries and veins...