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Absence seizures, also called petit mal seizures, are sudden yet brief losses of consciousness that do not cause any sort of lethargy afterwards. They may be triggered by hyperventilation, and are sometimes mistaken for daydreaming...


Scoliosis is a fixed lateral curvature (deformity) of the spine. There are several causes of scoliosis, the most common of which is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...


Aortopulmonary (AP) window refers to a rare defect, a hole between the wall of the aorta (the major artery that pumps blood from the heart to the rest of the body) and the pulmonary artery that pumps blood to the lungs...


Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common structural heart defect that can be present at birth (congenital). It is a hole in the septum (wall) that separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart...


Cholesteatomas are pediatric tumors of the cranial base. They are abnormal growths of skin cells inside of the temporal bone behind the ear drum. Learn more at the New York Head and Neck Institute.


A choroid plexus carcinoma is a malignant growth of tissue arising from the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus carcinomas are classified as grade III tumors, and while there is a considerable overlap in imaging characteristics, they carries a significantly poorer prognosis than choroid plexus papillomas...


Choroid plexus papillomas are uncommon, benign neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors, which can occur in the adult population but are more common in children...


Craniopharyngioma is a condition that develops from left-over cells in early fetal development. They often grow near the brain's pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, and may also affect the optic nerve and surrounding tissue...


Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a complex congenital heart defect where the pulmonary artery and the aorta ?" the two great vessels ?" arise from the right ventricle...


Encephaloceles are pediatric tumors of the cranial base. They are a herniation of the brain out of openings in the skull. Learn more at the New York Head and Neck Institute.