Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a condition that causes the narrowing and enlargement of arteries. Most commonly, it occurs in the carotid arteries which supply blood to the head and neck, or the renal arteries which supply the kidneys. FMD can also affect the arteries in the abdomen, arms, and legs. If left untreated, it can cause a number of complications such as tears in the artery (dissection), high blood pressure, stroke, aneurysms, or kidney failure.
Symptoms depend on where the affected artery or arteries are located, and are sometimes not noticeable at all, yet they can include headache, dizziness, blurred or distorted vision, neck pain, facial weakness or numbness, abdominal pain, unintentional weight loss, cold, weak, or numb limbs, and changes in skin color or appearance.
Treatment is focused on increasing blood flow. Common procedures are certain types of high blood pressure medications, and surgical procedures such as percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) or surgical revascularization.