Conditions

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The salivary glands produce enzymes to digest food and antibodies to prevent mouth and throat infections. Tumors are either malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous)...


Salmonella infections are diarrheal infections caused by the bacteria salmonella. The salmonella germ is actually a group of bacteria that can cause diarrheal illness in humans...


Sarcoidosis is a disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body. It can appear in almost any organ, but it starts most often in the lungs or lymph nodes.


Sarcomas of the posterior skull base are malignant tumors that occur at the back of the skull base. Learn more at the New York Head and Neck Institute.


Scars are the body's natural way of healing and replacing lost or damaged skin. They are usually composed of fibrous tissue and form for a variety of reasons including as a result of infections, surgery, injuries or inflammation of tissue...


Schizophrenia is one of the most complex of all mental health disorders. It involves a severe, chronic and disabling disturbance of the brain. Though schizophrenia was once classified as a psychological disease, it is now classified as a brain disease...


Schwannoma is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor that is also known as neurilemmoma or vestibular schwannoma. Schwannomas are usually very slow-growing and originate from the 8th cranial nerve (the nerve of hearing), also known as the acoustic or vestibulocochlear nerve...


Scleroderma, also called systemic sclerosis, is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin, and internal organs. Scleroderma is also associated with blood vessel abnormalities...


Scoliosis is a spinal deformity that causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. A normal spine when viewed from behind appears straight. A spine affected by scoliosis shows a lateral curvature, giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side...


Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis and impacts children in their teenage years. It is called idiopathic when there is no underlying cause identified.


A secondary or metastatic brain tumor is a cancer that started in another part of the body (as a primary cancer) and then spread to the brain. Many tumor or cancer types can spread to the brain...


Secondary hydrocephalus is a condition, in which there is an excess of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cavities within the brain, called ventricles. This condition can be caused by a brain tumor, hemorrhage, infection or a trauma from impact, such as falling down and hitting your head...


Segmental hemangiomas are common birthmarks that involve two or more areas of the face, either on one or both sides. It is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that is present at birth, grows rapidly in size in the first month or two and then stops growing by the age of six or seven months...


Seizures are the signs or symptoms that result from abnormal electrical activity in the brain. They come in many different forms, ranging from mild to severe, with varying symptoms depending on the location and the extent of electrical irregularities in the brain...


Sensorineural hearing loss is hearing loss due to damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear (hair cells). It is not reversible. Learn more at the New York Head and Neck Institute.


Sesamoiditis is an inflammation of the sesamoid bones in the forefoot (two pea-shaped bones located in the ball of the foot). Most bones in the human body are connected to other bones through joints...


Severe acute respiratory syndrome is an infectious respiratory disease. Commonly referred to as SARS, the infection is caused by a virus and easily spread from person to person.


STDs are infections derived from any type of sexual contact, including oral, vaginal or anal intercourse. Common types of STDs include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes and syphilis...


Shin splints are defined as damage to one or more areas along the shinbone that causes pain. One of the most common sports injuries, they are often associated with runners or any athlete who has repetitive strain on the muscles in this area...


A shinbone fracture frequently occurs on the proximal part of the tibia. The tibia is the stronger and larger of a set of bones found below the knee, connecting this vital joint with the bones of the ankle...


Shingles, also known as herpes zoster or zona, is a painful rash caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus in people who have previously had chickenpox...


Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is difficulty breathing or catching your breath. It can be mild and happen during light physical activity. It can also be severe enough to prevent walking, talking or eating...


Shoulder impingement is a painful condition that causes pain around the rotator cuff, both at rest and when moving the arm, especially in overhead motions...


There are two types of rotator cuff pain associated with shoulder impingement (friction between the rotator cuff and the shoulder blade): bursitis and tendonitis...


Sick sinus syndrome is not a specific disease, but rather a group of signs or symptoms that indicate the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) is not functioning properly.


If you struggle with symptoms of sickle cell disease, you know how sudden and severe the pain can be. Attacks can happen without warning, producing a variety of symptoms including: Coldness and swelling in the hands and feet Fatigue Shortness of breath Dizziness Paleness of the skin Jaundice Acute pain from sickle cell disease can strike anywhere in the body, often occurring in the lower back, legs, arms, abdomen and chest...


Moyamoya syndrome is sometimes seen in association with other diseases and can be a relatively uncommon neurovascular complication of sickle cell anemia...


Many forms of congenital heart disease present with only one functional pumping chamber (ventricle), a rare condition. Unless treated, a single ventricle defect is usually fatal to the child within its first days or months...


Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy (cancer). The cells of the cancer look so abnormal under the microscope that it can be difficult to tell what type of cancer it is...


A common cause of headaches is when your sinuses (the cavities around your nose) become inflamed and unable to drain fluids properly. This results in what is known as sinusitis...


Sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membranes lining the sinuses. Inflammation of the mucous membranes can be due to infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria or fungi...


Skin cancer is a malignant tumor that grows in the skin cells. There are three main types of skin cancer, including: Basal cell carcinoma - Basal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 80 percent of all skin cancers...


Skin inflammations, also called skin rashes, can have many different characteristics depending on their cause. Many skin rashes require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional...


Skull base tumors, also known as cranial base tumors, can often be asymptomatic (without symptoms) until they compromise neighboring structures, so they are often found at advanced stages...


Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. Learn more at the New York Head and Neck Institute.


A slipped disc, also known as a herniated or ruptured disc, is a condition that occurs when the cushion between vertebrae (disc) moves out of alignment in the spine and cracks, causing the soft, gel-like inner material to leak out...


The loss of the senses of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia) are the most common chemosensory disorders. The reduced ability to smell (hyposmia) or to taste sweet, sour, bitter, or salty substances (hypogeusia) are also common...


Snoring is the sound that occurs during sleep when flow of air is obstructed in the area where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate and uvula...


Soft tissue sarcoma causes tumors to grow in the soft tissues. Soft tissues include: Muscles Blood vessels Nerves Fat There are 40 to 50 different types of soft tissue sarcomas...


Spasmodic dystonia (SD) is a chronic neurological disorder of the vocal cords where the voice is strained, hoarse, jerky or breathy. It occurs when one or more muscles of the larynx contract or spasm involuntarily during speech without structural abnormality...


Spasmodic torticollis, or cervical dystonia, is a rare neurological disorder which causes the head to tilt, turn or twist with involuntary muscle contractions...


Spasticity is a musculoskeletal disorder characterized by continuous contraction of the muscles, resulting in impaired movement, speech, or gait due to stiffness, tightness, or paralysis...


Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare abnormalities in the structure of blood vessels, causing them to tangle around, on, or in the spinal cord...


Spinal compression fractures are small cracks that occur in the vertebrae, usually the result of pressure on thinning or weak bones (osteoporosis). There are different types of fractures, depending on the damage done to the bone: Wedge fractures affect the front of the vertebra, collapsing the bone in the front without affecting the back; crush factures break the entire vertebra; and burst fractures, the most unstable type, result in loss of height in the front and back walls of the vertebra, leaving the affected individual vulnerable to progressive deformity or neurological issues...


Spinal cord dysgraphia is a malformation characterized by an incomplete fusion of the neural tube and backbone such as in tethered spinal cord syndrome and spine bifida...


Spinal deformities are abnormalities in the curvature, alignment, or formation of the spine which result from certain conditions such as scoliosis (side-to-side curvature), kyphosis (front-to-back curvature), lordosis (back-to-front curvature), and spine bifida (incomplete fusion of the backbone)...


Spinal trauma is a broad term used to describe any injury to the spinal cord, column, or vertebrae. When the bundle of nerves and supporting tissue known as the spinal cord are injured, serious and permanent damage can occur such as loss of muscle function, loss of sensation, partial or complete paralysis, and cessation of autonomic functions such as breathing...


The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Spinal cord injury is the result of a traumatic injury such as a bruise or contusion, a partial tear or a complete tear (also called a transection) in the spinal cord...


Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal and occurs most often in people over 50 years of age. As the canal narrows, it puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves in the canal, causing pain and other symptoms...


A spine compression fracture occurs when trauma or weakening of the bone causes injury to one or more vertebrae, causing a crack, break, or “burst.” Fractures are most serious when they happen in the back of the rib cage (thoracic spine) or lumber spine (neck), where they can cause permanent damage to the spinal cord and potential neurological impairment...


Any fracture that affects the spinal column or any of the bones within that area of the skeletal system is a spine fracture, also known as a vertebral fracture...


Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic degenerative disorder slowly affecting a person’s gait, speech articulation and movement of hands and eyes...


Spondylolisthesis is a spinal disorder in which one or more vertebrae become displaced toward the front of the body, usually in the lumbar spine (lower back), and commonly following a fracture...


Spondylolysis is a result of a defect in the thin piece of bone that connects the upper and lower segments of the facet joints of the vertebrae. The condition can lead to stress fractures in the vertebrae that can weaken bones and cause them to slip out of place, a condition called spondylolisthesis...


A sprained ankle is a very common injury. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), approximately 25,000 people a day experience a sprained ankle...


The natural color of teeth can vary from person to person. There is no one “normal” shade of white that an individual’s teeth should be. However, the cumulative effect of many factors can affect the color of the teeth...


Stiff big toe, also known as hallux rigidus, is an arthritic condition in the big toe that causes the joint to stiffen. Because the big toe is so involved in movement of the feet, hallux rigidus can make walking painful and difficult...


Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer that starts in any part of the stomach. The stomach is just one of many organs located in the abdomen, the area of the body between the chest and the pelvis...


Strabismus, a misalignment of the eyes, is one of the most common eye problems in children, affecting approximately 4 percent of children under the age of six years...


A streptococcal, or strep, infection is caused by bacteria and can be mild to severe. The two types of strep bacteria are Group A and Group B. Group A strep can cause infections including: Impetigo, a mild skin infection Strep throat, a sore throat often with white spots on the tonsils Scarlet fever, a complication of strep throat that causes a red skin rash Toxic shock syndrome, an invasive strep infection that causes a rapid drop in blood pressure and organ failure in the kidneys, liver or lungs Necrotizing fasciitis, an invasive strep infection also called "flesh-eating bacteria" that destroys muscle, fat, and skin tissue Group B strep mainly affects newborns, but also adults, with infections such as: Blood infections Pneumonia Bacterial meningitis Skin infections (in adults) Urinary tract infections (in adults) Bone and joint infections (in adults) Symptoms of streptococcal infections vary widely because there are many types of infections...


Stress fractures are a common overuse injury in athletes, but can also occur in non-athletes. They occur when a person has a partial fracture in one of the bones...


Foot and ankle stress fractures are tiny surface hairline breaks in the bones. Stress fractures, unlike displaced or compound fractures, do not run through the entire bone...


Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. Disruption in blood flow is caused when either a blood clot blocks one of the vital blood vessels in the brain (ischemic stroke), or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts, spilling blood into surrounding tissues (hemorrhagic stroke)...


Structural heart disease and heart defects refer to a defect or abnormality in the heart's valves or vessels. These defects can involve the interior walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart or out to the body.


If you have an amputated limb, you may have a condition commonly referred to as stump pain. This type of pain happens at the end of your amputated limb’s stump...


A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a condition where there is bleeding into the subarachnoid space between the pia mater (inner layer) and arachnoid mater (middle layer) of the tissue covering the brain...


Often caused by severe head injuries, a subdural hematoma is an accumulation of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brain. Bleeding from a subdural hematoma increases pressure on the brain and can be life-threatening...


When you have supraorbital neuralgia, you may feel sharp, shooting or tingling pain in your face. The pain can be severe and even disabling. Supraorbital neuralgia is caused by irritation to the supraorbital nerve (SON), a branch of the trigeminal nerve, the main nerve that provides sensation from the forehead into the scalp line...


Syncope is a condition that occurs when there is a sudden decline in blood flow to your brain, leading to a temporary loss of consciousness. Syncope is commonly referred to as a fainting spell or passing out...