Conditions

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV attacks specific cells (T cells) in the immune system...


Halitosis is an oral health problem where the main symptom is bad smelling breath. In most cases, finding the cause of the bad breath is the first step toward treating this preventable condition...


Hallux rigidus (stiff big toe) is a form of degenerative arthritis which causes pain and stiffness at the base of the big toe. Over time, the progressive condition can cause the toe to become rigid and unable to move...


Hypothalamic Hamartoma (HH), a brain malformation, often results in problems such as memory impairment, imbalance and trouble walking, and visual and verbal learning issues...


A hammer toe is a condition in which the toe buckles, causing the middle joint of the affected toe to poke out. This condition is often aggravated by tight fitting shoes that put pressure on the hammer toe...


When any of the hand’s long bones (metacarpals) or short bones (phalanges) are broken, it is called a hand fracture. This injury is the most common bone fracture...


Hand pain can be the result of a variety of disorders and diseases that affect the bones, joints, tendons, ligaments and muscles of your hand and wrist...


Head or facial pain can hinder your enjoyment of life and can make it difficult to manage even basic daily activities. Head and facial pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, including migraine and tension headaches, nerve disorders, such as trigeminal neuralgia, infraorbital neuralgia, supraorbital neuralgia, atypical intractable facial pain, and head and face trauma...


Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults. The injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise (contusion) or cut on the head...


Learn more about head trauma injuries, symptoms and treatments at Northwell Health.


Nearly everyone has an occasional headache. However, when headache pain is severe or disrupts daily activities, treatments are available to reduce or even eliminate the pain...


Chances are that you or someone you know suffers from headaches or other pain in the face. These conditions are the reason for many emergency room and doctor visits...


A headache is a pain that is felt anywhere in the head or neck. Frequent headaches can affect relationships and quality of life. They may be caused by a lifestyle factor like anxiety or tension, or a more serious medical condition such as a brain tumor.


A heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction, occurs when the flow of oxygenated blood through a coronary artery to the heart suddenly becomes blocked.


Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is not strong enough to meet your body's needs, either because it can’t fill with blood or because it can’t pump with enough force. Some forms of heart failure are treated with surgery, such as valve replacements or coronary artery bypass surgery.


With an intricate system of 28 bones connected by numerous joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, the foot is one of the most complex parts of your body...


H. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid secretion) damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing inflammation and peptic ulcers...


Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine. The urine is often examined under a microscope to view evidence of RBCs. In some cases, a discoloration will be apparent and the urine will appear red or as the color of cola to the naked eye...


Hemifacial spasm is a rare disorder involving an involuntary contraction of one side of the face which may appear as if the patient is having a seizure, but is usually painless...


If you’ve suffered a stroke, it’s likely that you have experienced weakness on one side of your body. This weakness is called hemiparesis and affects eight out of 10 stroke survivors...


Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that primarily affects children under the age of 10. It is often characterized by: Damage to the lining of blood vessel walls Destruction of red blood cells Kidney failure Most cases of HUS occur after an infection in the digestive tract caused by the E...


There are specialized structures like blood vessels in and around the anal canal that can become swollen and irritated when extra pressure is placed on them...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Acute hepatitis is a type of hepatitis that is quite common in the U...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis A is a type of hepatitis that is usually spread by fecal-oral contact, or fecal-infected food and water...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis B (HBV) is a type of hepatitis that has a wide range of signs and symptoms...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis C is a type of hepatitis that usually has mild and gradual symptoms...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis D is a form of hepatitis that can occur only in the presence of hepatitis B...


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that results in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis E is a form of hepatitis similar to hepatitis A, in that transmission occurs through fecal-oral contamination...


Hereditary hemochromatosis is one of the most common genetic disorders in the U.S. It is a metabolic disorder that causes increased absorption of iron from the digestive tract...


A hiatal hernia is a common anatomical abnormality in which part of the stomach protrudes or herniates through the diaphragm and up into the chest. If the stomach gets stuck in the defect in the diaphragm, the hernia may become confined and cause severe pain in the chest and abdomen, which is a surgical emergency.


Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease of a type of sweat gland. While hidradenitis suppurativa is focused most commonly in the armpits it can occur in one or multiple areas of the body including the groin and anal area...


Also known as hypertension, high blood pressure (HBP) is the extra force of blood pushing against the inside of the blood vessels as the heart pumps, causing the heart to work harder...


A hip fracture is the complete or partial breakage of the upper thighbone, known as the proximal femur. The femur’s rounded end (known as its head) sits tightly but freely in the pelvis socket...


Hip replacement is a surgical treatment that replaces a severely damaged hip joint with a prosthesis (an artificial body part).


Hirschsprung's disease occurs when some of the nerve cells that are normally present in the intestine do not form properly while a baby is developing during pregnancy...


Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer that begins in the lymph system in white blood cells called lymphocytes. When these cells become abnormal, they grow without control and may form lumps of tissue called tumors.


A hordeolum, also known as a stye, is an inflammation of part of the eyelid. A stye is caused by a skin infection at the edge of the eyelid or underneath the eyelid...


Hormones help some types of cancer cells to grow, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. In other cases, hormones can kill cancer cells, make cancer cells grow more slowly or stop them from growing. Hormone therapy as a cancer treatment may involve taking medications that interfere with the activity of the hormone or stop the production of the hormones. Hormone therapy may involve surgically removing a gland that is producing the hormones.


The human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections, can cause warts and eventually lead to cancer.


The upper arm bone (the humerus) is the bone that runs between the elbow and the shoulder. Humerus fractures account for a remarkably small proportion of total bone fractures: only three percent...


Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic neurological disorder that causes the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain. A child of a parent with HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene that causes it...


A hydrocele occurs from an accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis, a thin pouch that holds the testes within the scrotum. In the fetus, the tunica vaginalis is formed in the abdomen and then moves into the scrotum with the testes...


Hydrocephalus is a condition that is caused by an increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The center of your brain has cavities, called ventricles that are filled with CSF...


Hypercalcemia is an abnormally high amount of calcium in the blood and can be present with a number of symptoms depending on the area of the body that's affected and the severity of the effects...


Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and has a variety of causes and symptoms. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced in the body and obtained from foods that come from animals (particularly egg yolks, meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products)...


Hyperhidrosis (sweaty palm syndrome) is a common disorder of the sweat glands, which causes excess sweat in the palms, feet or underarms. This condition can be extremely disabling socially and professionally...


The kidneys play a key role in keeping blood pressure in a healthy range. In turn, blood pressure can affect the health of the kidneys. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, can damage the kidneys and lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD)...


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare, complex, serious form of congenital heart disease in which the left ventricle (or chamber) of the heart is underdeveloped.


Hypospadias is a malformation that affects the urethral tube and the foreskin on a male's penis. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body...


Hypothyroidism, or not enough thyroid hormone in the blood, causes the body’s cells to slow down their rate of metabolism. It causes exhaustion, weight gain, depression, and in severe cases severe fluid retention in the body’s tissues, a condition called myxedema that may result in a coma or death...