Conditions

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The bones in the body not only add support but they help the body move. During early stages of life the body builds bone faster than it removes it. As we age, production slows down...


At Northwell Health Cancer Institute, our centers and departments bring together multidisciplinary specialists who deliver advanced, coordinated cancer care.


When you’re struggling with cancer and/or cancer treatments, you can have pain from a variety of sources. Cancerous tumors can press on the body’s organs, bones or nerves and cause pain...


Candidiasis, sometimes referred to as a yeast infection, is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes. Although yeast is normally a harmless inhabitant of the digestive system and vaginal area, it may cause an infection when the skin is damaged, when conditions are warm and humid leading to overgrowth, and/or when a person has a depressed immune system...


Aphthous stomatitis is an illness that causes small ulcers to appear in the mouth, usually inside the lips, on the cheeks, or on the tongue. Aphthous ulcers are also known as "canker sores...


Carbon monoxide can be created whenever a fuel (such as wood, gasoline, coal, natural gas or kerosene) is burning. Breathing in carbon monoxide fumes not only prevents oxygen from being used properly by the body, but also causes harm to the central nervous system...


Carotid artery stenosis (also called carotid artery disease) occurs when fatty material and atherosclerotic plaques accumulate on the inside of the artery wall, which reduces the flow of blood to the brain...


Carotid artery dissection is a condition that begins as a tear in one of the carotid arteries on either side of the neck. This tear allows blood under arterial pressure to enter the wall of the artery and splits its layers...


A carotid body tumor is also known as a carotid body paraganglioma or a chemodectoma. They are vascular tumors that begin in the external layer of the carotid artery and extend into the internal and external carotid arteries...


A carotid cavernous fistula is a condition that develops when there is an irregular connection between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus vein located behind the eye...


Carotid artery disease occurs when there is damage to the inner layers of the arteries, which supply blood to the brain. Approximately 30 percent of strokes are caused by narrowing or blockages in the carotid arteries on either side of the neck.


Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) occurs when the nerve running from the forearm to the palm of the hand (median nerve) is compressed in the carpal tunnel, a canal in the wrist formed of bone and connective tissue...


Caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, cat scratch disease is an infection that can be transmitted after being scratched or bitten by a cat. In individuals with healthy immune systems, cat scratch disease is rarely a serious condition...


A cavernous angioma is a condition whereby a collection of small blood vessels in the central nervous system become both irregular and enlarged, taking on a characteristic honeycomb shape...


Cavernous sinus tumors are either meningiomas, located in the thin layers of tissue covering the brain and spinal cord or neurofibromas, located in the nerve sheath...


Cavities, or tooth decay, are holes in your tooth. Cavities are a highly preventable disease caused by bacteria with many contributing factors. Bacteria is normally present in the mouth; it converts all foods, especially sugar and starch, into acids...


A cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a condition whereby there is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain. While their cause is unknown, cerebral arteriovenous malformations are rare and usually form during pregnancy or immediately after birth...


Cerebral edema is an accumulation of water in the spaces of the brain. This condition can be brought on by head trauma, stroke or other condition. This is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early detection and rapid treatment...


A cerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke known as a hemorrhagic stroke. It occurs when a defective artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood...


Cerebral ischemia, also called brain ischemia, is a condition that results in low blood flow and poor oxygen delivery to brain tissue, which in turn can injure neurons and affect normal brain function...


Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the clinical term used to describe a stroke. These can be either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are typically caused by a blockage in the blood supply to the brain, while hemorrhagic stroke generally occurs due to rupture of weakened blood vessels...


Cerebral vasculitis or central nervous system vasculitis is an inflammation of the vascular system within the cerebrum. This condition causes a narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord...


One cause of stroke is cerebral venous thrombosis, a condition in which there is blockage of blood flow within the dural or cortical venous sinuses of the brain...


Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder caused by a brain injury or malformation during brain development.


Cardiovascular disease includes all disorders that hinder blood flow to your brain, particularly the arteries that supply your brain. Cardiovascular diseases include stroke, carotid stenosis, aneurysms and vascular malformations...


Moyamoya syndrome is a complication of certain congenital heart defects. In patients who develop Moyamoya syndrome because of a congenital heart defect, there is a greater chance of stroke, transient neurologic deficit and seizure...


Cervical disc herniation is a condition similar to a bulging disc, yet far more painful, occurring when the soft padding (discs) between the vertebrae in the neck become misaligned and crack, causing the soft, gel-like material inside (nucleus pulposus) to rupture...


Cervical radiculopathy, or a "pinched nerve," is a type of damage or disease (neuropathy) affecting the root of one or more nerves in the neck region. It causes radiating pain, weakness, numbness, and/or difficulty controlling or using some muscles...


Cervical spine dysfunction is the most common cause of neck pain, affecting individuals of all ages, with a slightly higher prevalence between the active ages of 12 and 50...


Cervical cancer develops when normal cervical cells transform into abnormal cells. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancer.


Cervical cancer is a condition in which the cells in the cervix grow abnormally and out of control. The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body.


Learn about cervical decompression surgery and the spine specialists who perform these procedures at Northwell Health Orthopaedic Institute.


A cervical herniated disc, also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, occurs when a disc in the neck area (cervical) of the spinal column is damaged by injury, disease or the normal wear and tear of aging...


A healthy cervix remains strong and closed until you near your due date. Cervical insufficiency occurs when the cervix weakens and is unable to stay closed.


Cervical spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the neck and usually occurs in people over 50 years of age. The narrowing can occur at the center of your spine in the canals that branch off your spine...


Cervical spondylosis, a common cause of chronic neck pain, is a result of degeneration of the cartilage and bones in your neck (cervical vertebrae), the discs (cushions) between your vertebrae and the joints between the bones of your cervical spine...


Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), despite its name, is a genetic, degenerative peripheral nervous system condition that affects different areas of the body, resulting in the progressive loss of muscle tissue and sensation...


Chemotherapy (chemo) refers to the use of drugs, known as chemotherapeutic agents, to kill or slow the growth of rapidly multiplying cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs are most commonly given intravenously (through an IV) or orally (through the mouth), but they can be given in other ways.


We have a dedicated program to expertly treat a wide array of chest wall deformities. We physically examine each patient, discuss their condition with them or their family and determine the best surgical or non-surgical approach to treatment.


What are Chiari malformations (CMs)? They are structural differences in the part of the brain that controls balance ?" the cerebellum. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem sit in an indented space at the lower rear of the skull, above the foramen magnum (a funnel-like opening to the spinal canal)...


A Chiari malformation is when the back of the brain pushes down through the bottom opening of the skull, which can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.


Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall and nearby abdominal lining. Cholecystitis is usually caused by a gallstone in the cystic duct, the duct that connects the gallbladder to the hepatic duct...


Chordoma is a rare bone cancer of the skull or spine, which is usually slow-growing. Tumors occur spontaneously and are thought to develop in the cells of remnants of the notochord, which is a cartilage-like structure that helps form the early spine of the fetus...


A choroid plexus carcinoma is a malignant growth of tissue arising from the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus carcinomas are classified as grade III tumors, and while there is a considerable overlap in imaging characteristics, they carries a significantly poorer prognosis than choroid plexus papillomas...


Choroid plexus papillomas are uncommon, benign neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors, which can occur in the adult population but are more common in children...


Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The kidneys' main function is to remove waste and excess water from the body. Chronic kidney disease causes a buildup of fluid and waste products in the body...


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that causes the body to produce large numbers of white blood cells. These leukemia cells, called lymphocytes, cannot fight infection very well.


Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that causes the body to produce large numbers of white blood cells (myelocytes). These myelocytes, called leukemia cells, cannot fight infection very well.


Chronic myofascial pain (CMP) is a common disorder that affects skeletal muscles, which are connected to bones and help you move. It also affects the tissue (called fascia) that surrounds the muscles...


Chronic neck pain can be both frustrating and painful. There can be many causes of neck pain including: Overuse and strenuous activity Improper or repetitive heavy lifting Trauma, injury or fractures Stress on the muscles and ligaments that support the neck, resulting in degeneration Poor muscle tone Sprain or strain Ligament or muscle tears Joint problems, such as arthritis Smoking Protruding or herniated (slipped) disc and pinched nerve Osteoporosis Congenital (present at birth) abnormalities Most types of chronic neck pain can be managed effectively with drug and non-drug therapies...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that can interfere with normal breathing. Nearly 13 million Americans suffer from COPD, according to the American Lung Association, and 24 million U...


Chronic pain can be very distressing and debilitating?"physically and emotionally?"to patients and their families who care for them. At Northwell Health, the multidisciplinary team addresses the causes and effects of your chronic pain with a range of therapeutic treatments...


Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders are disruptions in the circadian rhythm?"the human body’s internal clock, which regulates various biological processes...


Cirrhosis is the twelfth leading cause of death in the United States, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases...


A clavicle fracture is a broken collarbone. The clavicle is the bone that secures the arm to the body and connects the breastbone (sternum) to the shoulder blade (scapula)...


Traumatic brain injuries occur when there is a sudden trauma that causes damage to the brain. In the case of a closed head injury, the skull and brain remain intact...


Experienced more frequently by men than women, cluster headaches produce very severe pain on one side of the head or eye. Your eye may become red, swollen and teary...


Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth, caused by the herpes simplex virus. They are sometimes referred to as fever blisters. The most common strain of the virus causing cold sores is herpes simplex virus 1...


Colon cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow in your colon. These cells grow together and form tumors.


Coma is a condition in which you have a decreased level of consciousness. With a coma, a patient cannot be wakened by physical or auditory stimulation...


If you suffer from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), you know the challenges of experiencing chronic, severe pain. One of the common symptoms of this condition is a continuous, intense pain that is out of proportion to the severity of an injury...


Surgeons use skin grafting and skin flaps to close or cover wounds. A skin graft is the transfer of a portion of the skin, without its blood supply, to a wound...


Congenital anomalies of the female genital tract are developmental issues that form in the embryo and can occur in the vagina, ovaries, uterus or cervix.


Congenital kidney defects are present at birth. Along with congenital defects of the urinary tract anatomy, they represent approximately 30 percent of all malformations diagnosed prenatally...


Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the membrane that lines the inside of the eye and also a thin membrane that covers the actual eye...


Constipation is a condition in which a person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements. A person is considered to be constipated when bowel movements result in small amounts of hard, dry stool fewer than three times a week...


Convulsions are sudden, involuntary, irregular contractions of the muscles that cause the body to rapidly shake. Someone experiencing a convulsion can temporarily lose consciousness and bowel/bladder control, stop breathing, and clench their teeth...


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner layer of the coronary arteries. The fatty deposits may begin to develop in childhood and they continue to thicken and enlarge during a person’s lifetime. This thickening, known as atherosclerosis, narrows the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.


Corticobasal Ganglionic Degeneration is a rare, progressive disease caused by the atrophy and progressive loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, the areas of the brain associated with functions such as memory, attention, language, and voluntary muscle control...


Craniofacial abnormalities are abnormalities of the growth of the skull, which may constrict brain growth.


Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor that develops from leftover cells in early fetal development. This type of tumor often grows near the brain's pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and may also affect the optic nerve and surrounding tissue...


Compartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment. It can be the result of a crush injury and can lead to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow...


Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a very rare condition where a substance made by the liver (bilirubin) cannot be broken down. In these cases, the enzyme that typically converts bilirubin into a form that can be removed by the body is not working correctly...


Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is a chronic condition that may recur at various times over a lifetime. It usually involves the small intestine, most often the lower part called the ileum...


Cubital tunnel syndrome is a condition that involves pressure or stretching of the ulnar nerve. It is evidenced by a sensation similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow...