Conditions

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The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four main ligaments in the knee that gives the knee and leg flexibility and allows it to move easily.


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are some of the most common forms of injuries encountered by athletes. They occur when one of the four main ligaments in the knee, called the ACL, tears, leaving the knee less stable...


An abdominal aortic aneurysm, also called AAA or triple A, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the abdominal aorta (the largest artery in the body) resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the vessel's normal diameter (width).


If your Pap test results came back abnormal, you are probably feeling anxious about what to do next. That’s why Northwell Health gynecologists will immediately explain the results and order the proper additional tests to find out if any action must be taken...


Northwell's OB/GYN specialists have expertise in both the diagnosis and management of abnormal placentation. Diagnosis prior to delivery is essential, as untreated abnormal placentation, also known as placenta accreta, can be a life-threatening condition for a mother if it goes undiagnosed prior to the birth of the baby...


An abscessed tooth is an infection at the root of the tooth. Abscesses are often caused by tooth decay, gum disease, or untreated cavities and can be extremely painful...


Absence seizures, also called petit mal seizures, are sudden yet brief losses of consciousness that do not cause any sort of lethargy afterwards. They may be triggered by hyperventilation, and are sometimes mistaken for daydreaming...


Achalasia is a rare disease of the muscle of the esophagus that occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to open and let food pass into the stomach. As a result, patients with achalasia have difficulty swallowing food.


An Achilles tendon injury is an injury that happens to the largest tendon in the human body: the fibrous tissue that connects the two large muscles in the back of your calf with your heel bone...


Acne is a common disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands with a number of causes and symptoms. The disorder typically leads to the development of pimples and cysts...


Acoustic neuroma, also referred to as vestibular schwannoma, is a noncancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear...


An acquired arteriovenous fistula is a condition whereby there is an abnormal channel between an artery and a vein. Normally, blood flows from arteries into capillaries and then into veins...


Actinic keratosis, also known as a solar keratosis, is a precancerous condition of the skin that causes a scaly or crusty bump to arise on the surface of the skin...


Acute neck pain can come on suddenly and prevent you from managing your normal daily activities. There are many causes of acute neck pain, including overuse, trauma, sprain or strain, slipped disc and osteoporosis...


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphoblasts (a primitive type of white blood cell)...


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. It is a disease in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell)...


Physicians at Northwell Health specialize in caring for patients with acute pain. The palliative care professionals take a multidisciplinary approach to manage your pain, stress and related symptoms of serious illness to improve your quality of life...


Acute vascular thrombosis occurs when a blood clot obstructs a vein. Blockages in these vessels can slow or even stop blood flow and cause serious consequences. Different types of vascular thrombosis occur in different parts of the body.


Addictive disorders, such as substance abuse and dependence, are common disorders that involve the overuse of alcohol or drugs. Addiction develops over time and is a chronic and relapsing illness...


Adenocarcinoma (malignant cancer from gland tissues) is a common tumor of the sinuses, forming on the lining tissues, which are the air-filled areas that make up the inside of the facial bones...


Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a slow growing, neurotropic (tends to grow along nerves), infiltrative tumor that is likely to appear in the sinonasal tract...


Before treating adenomyosis, there are a lot of complexities and factors that must be thoroughly assessed. Northwell Health professionals are experts at uncovering the most suitable, productive treatment for you...


Scoliosis is a fixed lateral curvature (deformity) of the spine. There are several causes of scoliosis, the most common of which is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...


Several tumor types can develop in the adrenal glands, which sit on the kidneys. These two small glands produce hormones which help to control certain bodily responses, a balance frequently disrupted by tumors...


Adrenal diseases can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much or not enough hormones, including sex hormones and cortisol. These adrenal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms that range from mild to life-threatening...


Adult normal pressure hydrocephalus is a mild, difficult-to-diagnose type of hydrocephalus, a condition commonly referred to as “water on the brain.” The condition causes an excess of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cavities within the brain, called ventricles...


Adult degenerative scoliosis is a curvature of the spine in which the spinal column bends from side to side instead of straight up and down. The condition is a result of degeneration of the facet joints, which are small joints between the backbones (vertebrae) that help your spine move...


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects an individual's central vision. AMD is the most common cause of severe vision loss among people over 60...


Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver. It results in liver cell damage and destruction. Alcoholic hepatitis is a complex problem and can lead to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis...


Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited condition where a patient lacks the sufficient volumes of AAT protein to protect the alveoli (the small sacs in the lungs that exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide)...


According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die...


Amblyopia is a reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal. Eye disorders that affect vision can be divided into two groups, including the following: Refractive errors...


Amnesia is a loss of memory caused by damage to areas of the brain necessary for processing memories. In some cases, the episode of memory loss is temporary, also known as transient global amnesia...


Anal cancer forms in the anus, the opening to the rectum that controls the elimination of feces during bowel movements. Two sphincter muscles open and close the anus...


An aneurysm is a condition whereby a section of an artery wall bulges, dilates or a balloons out. Your arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your body...


Angina (chest pain) indicates an underlying heart problem such as coronary heart disease, which is a result of one or more blockages in the coronary arteries. It also may signal coronary microvascular disease, which affects the heart’s smallest coronary arteries.


Angiofibromas, or most commonly, juvenile angiofibromas, are benign fibrovascular tumors (fibrous and blood vessel tissue origin) that occur almost always in teenage males...


An ankle occurs when one or more than one bone that makes up the ankle joint ?" and possibly its ligaments ?" breaks at or near the joint. Every year, 184 people out of every 100,000 sustain ankle fractures...


Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. "Ankylosing" means stiff or rigid, "spondyl" means spine, and "itis" refers to inflammation...


Total pulmonary venous anomalies may occur in isolation or in combination with other types of congenital heart defects. There can be varying numbers and combinations of venous anomalies, usually in specific patterns, ranging in severity from mild to very complex...


Oxygen is essential for brain function. When oxygen levels drop to a dangerous level, brain cells begin to die. This can lead to an anoxia/hypoxia brain injury...


Antiphospholipid syndrome (aPL) is an autoimmune disease in which the body produces large amounts of antiphospholipid antibodies. Phospholipids are a special type of fat containing phosphate that makes up the outer walls of the body's cells...


Anxiety disorders are conditions in which the sufferer experiences extreme, often disabling, fear or anxiety. They can be understood as a pathological version of normal fear and are the most common of the mental disorders...


The aorta, the body's largest artery, delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. The heart pumps blood out of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve, and into the aorta. Aneurysm is the primary problem that may affect the aorta; the blood vessel may become enlarged beyond its normal size.


Aortic valve regurgitation occurs when the aortic valve does not close tightly and blood leaks back into the heart's pumping chamber when the left ventricle relaxes.


Aortic valve stenosis is a buildup of calcium deposits on the heart valve, which obstructs blood flow because the narrowing of the valve prevents it from opening properly.


Aortopulmonary (AP) window refers to a rare defect, a hole between the wall of the aorta (the major artery that pumps blood from the heart to the rest of the body) and the pulmonary artery that pumps blood to the lungs...


Aphasia is caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language functions. It can make it difficult to read, write and say what you mean to say...


Aplastic anemia is a bone marrow disorder in which the stem cells get damaged and don’t develop into needed blood cells. Aplastic anemia can develop at any age, in any race or gender ?" though it is diagnosed more frequently in: Children Young adults and the elderly Asian-Americans Aplastic anemia can slowly emerge or strike at once, leading to problems that range from moderate to severe...


In the brain, the cerebellum is the section that controls balance. Chiari malformations occur when parts of the cerebellum protrude into the spinal canal...


An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute, but arrhythmias and abnormal heart rates don't necessarily occur together. Arrhythmia symptoms can occur with a normal heart rate, or with heart rates that are slow or rapid.


Inorganic arsenic compounds are used to preserve wood, as pesticides and in some industries. Arsenic can get into air, water and the ground from wind-blown dust...


Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood directly to your heart muscle. Arterial blockage often can be diagnosed using a cardiac catheterization.


Arterio-venous capillary syndrome malformation, or Parkes Weber syndrome, is a genetic syndrome due to a mutation of a gene. It is characterized by numerous abnormal connections between arteries and veins known as arterio-venous fistulas and capillary malformations presenting as pink blotches throughout the skin...


Arterio-venous malformations are abnormal direct connections between the arterial and venous side of the circulation without passing through capillaries and the tissues first...


Arteriosclerotic dementia (also called vascular dementia) is a loss of one’s mental function due to the destruction of brain tissue from blocked or reduced blood supply...


An arteriovenous fistula is an atypical channel between a vein and an artery. In some rare circumstances, a large fistula may cause reduced blood flow in the affected arm or leg if it is diverting enough blood...


Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the head and neck are defects of the blood vessels that happen when a fetus is growing in the uterus. Blood vessels present themselves as a tangled mass of arteries and veins...


Arthritic deformities are caused by rheumatoid arthritis which can damage bones, joints and tissues of the foot. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease that causes inflammation of the joints...


Arthritis is one of more than 100 types of rheumatic disease that affects one or more joints and their connective tissues. Along with inflammation, arthritis causes pain, swelling and limited movement of joints and connective tissues...


Arthritis of the elbow is a condition in which the elbow’s cartilage is injured or worn. This is a common condition in the elderly population, as one of the leading causes of arthritis is the deterioration of the cartilage over time...


Arthritis of the hip is a condition that causes the hip joint and surrounding connective tissue to be inflamed, causing pain, swelling and limited movement of the hip...


Arthritis of the knee is a condition that causes inflammation, pain, swelling and limited movement of the knee joint and connective tissues around the knee...


Shoulder arthritis is inflammation of one or both of the joints in your shoulder that facilitate movement. Arthritis of the shoulder can affect the AC (acromioclavicular) joint or the glenohumeral joint or both...


Basal joint arthritis, also called arthritis of the thumb, occurs when the joint at the base of your thumb develops arthritis. Arthritis is a disease which attacks or destroys a joint, causing severe pain and hindering functionality...


Asbestos is a mineral fiber that was added to many buildings and to certain products for strengthening, heat insulation and fire resistance. Most products today are not made with asbestos...


Astigmatism is a condition in which an abnormal curvature of the cornea can cause two focal points to fall in two different locations ?" making objects up close and at a distance appear blurry...


Astrocytomas are tumors that originate from astrocytes, which are star-shaped cells that make up the supportive or “glue-like” tissue of the brain...


Ataxia is a loss of voluntary movement and/or balance, a sign of neurological disruption or disorder. This can occur as a result of injury, infection, degenerative disease, or other diseases of the central nervous system, and can affect one or both sides of the body in the fingers, hands, arms, legs, trunk, mouth, tongue, or eyes, including sensation...


Atonic seizures, also called drop attacks or drop seizures, cause muscles to suddenly lose tone and strength. The result of temporary electrical changes in brain function, they can either be slight such as drooping eyelids, a nodding of the head, or an unclenching of the hand, or more intense in cases where brief paralysis occurs or causes the person to fall...


Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common structural heart defect that can be present at birth (congenital). It is a hole in the septum (wall) that separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.


Atrioventricular (AV) canal defect, also known as AV canal defect, refers to a large hole in the center of the heart that prevents the separation of all four heart chambers and requires surgical repair. 


Atrioventricular canal defect (AV canal defect) refers to a large hole in the center of the heart that prevents the separation of all four heart chambers and requires surgical repair.


Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes (APS), or Parkinsonism Plus Syndrome, is a term used when a patient exhibits symptoms seen in classic Parkinson’s disease, but they have a different cause...


Facial pain can be both puzzling and extremely painful. One condition that causes facial pain is atypical intractable facial pain which is a pain disorder that share some features with a nerve pain condition called trigeminal neuralgia...


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of conditions that cause challenges with social interactions, repetitive behaviors, communication and navigation of the world in a socially appropriate manner.


Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. In autoimmune hepatitis, the body's own immune system destroys the cells of the liver...


Autonomic hyperreflexia, or Autonomic dysreflexia, is the result of a spinal cord injury (lesion) that may be life-threatening depending on its specific vertebral level and may develop suddenly...


When you’re suffering from back pain, it can be hard to focus on anything else. Axial back pain is the most common source of lower back pain, with symptoms that can range from mile to severe...


If you sweat profusely under your arms, you have a condition called axillary hyperhidrosis. Often, you may also have sweaty palms and/or feet. This excessive sweating is caused by over-active nerves that regulate your sweat glands...