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A

Achalasia is a rare disease of the muscle of the esophagus that occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to open and let food pass into the stomach. As a result, patients with achalasia have difficulty swallowing food.

B

Bronchiectasis is a condition in which the airways of the lungs begin to swell. It is often caused by irritation of the airways that keeps coming back. Sometimes it begins in childhood after having a severe lung infection or inhaling a foreign object.

E

Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involving damage to the air sacs in the lungs. As a result, your body does not get the oxygen it needs, making it hard to catch your breath
Esophageal cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. People don’t usually undergo routine screenings for esophageal cancer as they do for other cancers, such as colon cancer.

G

Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus, and reflux means to flow back or return. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the return of acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids, back up into the esophagus.

H

A hiatal hernia is a common anatomical abnormality in which part of the stomach protrudes or herniates through the diaphragm and up into the chest. If the stomach gets stuck in the defect in the diaphragm, the hernia may become confined and cause severe pain in the chest and abdomen, which is a surgical emergency.

I

Interstitial lung disease is a group of disorders in which the lungs develop significant and sometimes disabling inflammation, scar tissue or fibrosis within the tissues.

L

Lung cancer is cancer that usually starts in the lining of the bronchi (the main airways of the lungs), but can also begin in other areas of the respiratory system, including the trachea, bronchioles or alveoli.
Lung nodules are small masses of tissue in the lung that appear as spots on an X-ray or CT scan of the chest that may or may not be cancer-causing. With the increase in the use of CT scans, lung nodules are being found with increasing regularity, though people with solitary lung nodules do not usually experience symptoms.
Lymph node enlargement (lymphadenopathy) in the chest is a frequent finding on X-rays and CT scans. There are many reasons for the enlarged nodes that often depend on the patient's history. Some infections and inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis can cause the nodes to be enlarged.

M

Mediastinal disease refers to an unusual group of tumors that form in the area called the mediastinum, which separates the lungs in the middle of the thoracic cavity. About half of mediastinal tumors cause no symptoms and are found on a chest X-ray or scans for another reason. Occasionally, they will cause symptoms of chest pain or shortness of breath.
Mesothelioma is a rare form of lung cancer that usually arises in the tissue lining of the lungs, called the mesothelium. It usually starts in the lungs, but can also start in the abdomen or other organs. Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the nerves and muscles of the body that causes progressive weakness and, often, drooping of the eyelids known as ocular myasthenia.

P

Pleural effusion is extra fluid around the lung. This often causes shortness of breath as the lung gets compressed from the fluid. The reasons for effusion are many, and the specific diagnosis is often based upon tap or drainage of the fluid.
Pneumonia is a lung infection. Patients with pneumonia can have a cough with green or bloody mucus, a fever, chills, chest pain and difficulty breathing.
A pneumothorax is a total collapse of the lung caused by air entering the pleural space between the lung and chest wall. A partial collapse of the lung is called atelectasis.
Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which there is scarring of the tissue in the lungs. This tissue gets thick and stiff. That makes it hard for you to breathe, and your blood may not get enough oxygen.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a type of coronary artery disease (CAD). This condition occurs when the pressure in the pulmonary arteries becomes abnormally elevated. There is inflammation in the lining of the pulmonary artery, which changes the cells in the lining, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood forward into the lungs to be oxygenated.

S

Sarcoidosis is a disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body. It can appear in almost any organ, but it starts most often in the lungs or lymph nodes.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome is an infectious respiratory disease. Commonly referred to as SARS, the infection is caused by a virus and easily spread from person to person.

T

Thymoma is an uncommon type of tumor that grows in the thymus, a small organ just behind the breastbone (sternum). The thymus produces lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that fights infections.
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