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Angina (chest pain) indicates an underlying heart problem such as coronary heart disease, which is a result of one or more blockages in the coronary arteries. It also may signal coronary microvascular disease, which affects the heart’s smallest coronary arteries.
Aortic valve stenosis is a buildup of calcium deposits on the heart valve, which obstructs blood flow because the narrowing of the valve prevents it from opening properly.
An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia. A normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute, but arrhythmias and abnormal heart rates don't necessarily occur together. Arrhythmia symptoms can occur with a normal heart rate, or with heart rates that are slow or rapid.
Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood directly to your heart muscle. Arterial blockage often can be diagnosed using a cardiac catheterization.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common structural heart defect that can be present at birth (congenital). It is a hole in the septum (wall) that separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
Atrioventricular canal defect (AV canal defect) refers to a large hole in the center of the heart that prevents the separation of all four heart chambers and requires surgical repair.


Carotid artery disease occurs when there is damage to the inner layers of the arteries, which supply blood to the brain. Approximately 30 percent of strokes are caused by narrowing or blockages in the carotid arteries on either side of the neck.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner layer of the coronary arteries. The fatty deposits may begin to develop in childhood and they continue to thicken and enlarge during a person’s lifetime. This thickening, known as atherosclerosis, narrows the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.


A heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction, occurs when the flow of oxygenated blood through a coronary artery to the heart suddenly becomes blocked.
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is not strong enough to meet your body's needs, either because it can’t fill with blood or because it can’t pump with enough force. Some forms of heart failure are treated with surgery, such as valve replacements or coronary artery bypass surgery.


Valvular stenosis occurs over time as the opening in a valve narrows due to a collection of calcium deposits. When that happens, the heart cannot pump as well.


Patent foramen ovale (PFO), a hole in the heart that can be present at birth, is a common structural heart defect. It occurs in about 25 percent of all newborns, but most people do not experience problems because of it.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs. When plaque builds up in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body.
Premature atrial contractions are contractions in the atria (upper chambers) of the heart that occur too early in the rhythm sequence and disrupt the heart's rhythm.
Premature superventricular contraction (PSC) refers to premature contractions originating from the ventricles, the lower heart chambers. They are called “premature” because they occur before the regular heartbeat.
Over time, the opening in a heart valve can become narrow due to a collection of calcium deposits. When the valve narrows, the heart does not pump as well. Valvular stenosis can affect the heart's aortic, mitral, pulmonary or tricuspid valves.


Sick sinus syndrome is not a specific disease, but rather a group of signs or symptoms that indicate the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) is not functioning properly.
Structural heart disease and heart defects refer to a defect or abnormality in the heart's valves or vessels. These defects can involve the interior walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the arteries and veins that carry blood to the heart or out to the body.


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a common structural heart disease that can be present at birth: a hole or defect in the septum (wall) that divides the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles).
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